英语语法基础知识

in 默认分类 with 0 comment

语法基础

十大词性

英语名称作用例词
名词Noun(n.)表示人或事物的名称student学生; China
代词Pronoun (pron.)用来代替名词、形容词或数词等He他; that那
数词Numeral (num.)表示数量或顺序one一; first第一
形容Adjective(adj.)用来修饰名词safe安全; great伟大
冠词Article (art.)用在名词前,说明所指的人或事an,a,the
动词Verb (v.)表示人或事物的动作或状态eat吃; have有;run跑
副词Adverb (adv.)用来修饰动词、形容词hard艰苦; here这
介词Preposition (prep.)说明句子中词与词之间的关系under在...下; in在...
连词Conjunction用来连接词、短语或句子and和; but但是
感叹词Interjection表示说话时的感情或口气Hello喂; why呃,嘿

七个成分

主语谓语宾语表语定语状语补语
名词动词名词名词、形容词形容词副词名词、形容词

五种基本句型

  1. 主 + 谓

I teach.

  1. 主 + 系 + 表

I am a teacher.

  1. 主+谓+宾

I teach English.

  1. 主 + 谓 + 间宾 + 直宾

I teach you English.

  1. 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补

I learn English better.

简单句&复合句

简单句

复合句

复合句的分类

I like apples, but I don’t like oranges.

I like the apple that you gave me yesterday.

并列复合句

定义

由两个或两个以上的分句并列而成,这些分句叙述相关的几件事情,或说明相关的几种情况,彼此之间没有主次之分、没有从属关系。

并列复合句的分类

构词法记忆

前缀(改变词义) + 词根(决定单词意义决定方向) + 后缀(决定词性)

定语从句

定语从句三步走

  1. 先确定先行词
  2. 再选择关系词
  3. 最后写出从句

说明

关系词

关系代词必须却成分;关系副词不缺成分

关系代词

that、which、who、whom、whose、as

关系副词

when(on which)、where(in which)、why(for which)

限定性定语从句

看先行词是什么, 看定语从句缺什么.

非限制性定语成分

I like the girl who is making a pose.
我喜欢摆pose的那个女孩

I like the girl, who is making a pose.
我喜欢的那个女孩,她正在摆pose

三种情况

对比

形式作用能否省略翻译
限制性定语从句没有逗号修饰、限定不能...的
非限制性定语从句需要逗号补充、解释另起一句

非限定性定语从句(有逗号的)中关系词不能转换成which使用

  1. I don't know why he was late yesterday.
  2. You do what you want. // 你爱咋咋地
  3. Most of us didn't know to deal with the situation.

主语从句

陈述句(that + 陈述语序)

  1. It is + 形容词 + that + 从句
  2. It is + 名词 / 名词性短语 + that + 从句

    It is a pity that...
    It is good news ...
    It is an honor that...
    It is my belief that ...
    It is a miracle that ...
    It is a shame that...
  3. It is + 过去分词 + that + 从句

    It is reported that...据报道
    It is believed that... 人们相信
    It must be pointed out that... 必须指出
    It has been found that... 现已发现

一般疑问句(whether + 陈述语序)

Whether you can pass the exam is unknown. 

特殊疑问句(疑问词 + 陈述语序)

When the sports meeting will be held is not sure.

表语从句

陈述句(that + 陈述语序)

1. My decision is that we all go to the cinema.

2. The reason why I am against this plan is that it will post a negative influence on the environment. // 我反对这个计划的原因是它将对环境有害。(既有定语从句又有表语从句)

3. The reson why i am in favor of this plan is it will pose a positive influence on the environment.

4. Yesterday is history, Tomorrow is mystery, Tody is a gift. That's why it's called the present.

一般疑问句(whether + 陈述语序)

The key point is whether you can shake your head.

特殊疑问句(疑问词 + 陈述语序)

The question is who will be responsible for the
accident.

状语从句

修饰整个句子,表示句子间的关系。

时间状语从句

while

固定句型

when

固定句型(一...就...)

as

before?

  1. It took five minutes before he invited her. // [之后才]
  2. It wasn’t long before the girl’s boyfriend showed up. // [不久就]
  3. Before he could make up an excuse, her boyfriend agreed to dine out. // [没来得及就]
  4. I would die before I dated with you. // [绝不]

until

We will not leave until he comes back. // 他一回来我们就走。

Never leave the things until tomorrow you can do today. // 今日事,今日毕。

as soon as

We will leave as soon as it stops raining. // 雨一停我们就走。

once

Once you understand the rules of the game, you’ll love it. // 你一旦了解了游戏规则会喜欢它的。

名词引导句子

The first time we heard the story, we didn’t understand it. // 我们第一次听说这个故事时完全不懂。

地点状语从句

Where there is a will, there is a way. // 有志者事竟成。

I found my wallet at the place where I fell down yesterday. // 我在昨天摔倒的地方找到了钱包.

原因状语从句

条件状语从句

目的状语从句

结果状语从句

让步状语从句

越来越口语化,语气越来越弱

⽅式状语从句

⽐较状语从句

People are not as honest as they once were. // ⼈们不像过去那么诚实了。

虚拟语气

分类

  1. if虚拟条件句
  2. 其他句式虚拟
  3. 名词性从句中的虚拟

if虚拟条件句

对现在的情况虚拟

对过去情况虚拟

对将来情况虚拟

虚拟的时间If 从句谓语主句的谓语
现在were/didwould/could/ might/ should+do
过去had donewould/could/ might/should +have done
将来were were to shouldwould/could/ might/ should+do

错综时间虚拟

If I had not met you, where would I be? // 如果当初没有遇⻅你,我现在会是在哪⾥?

不含if的虚拟条件

与现在事实不相符

与过去事实不相符

与将来事实不相符

Responses